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and Vessels
used in Feasts,
Ceremonies and
Temple Worship
by Priests


Although use of the Temple Implements were made via directions from God, Himself, the complete creation and proper use of these inplements did not occur until the time of Solomon when the Hebrews built the permanent temple in Jerusalem. During Moses' reign, the chief priest was his borhter Aaron. For more details see our section: "Third Temple"
Copper Laver or Muchni - The copper laver and stand, which stands in the Temple courtyard between the sanctuary and the outer altar, is the first of the Temple vessels to greet the priests each morning. There the priests wash their hands and feet before proceeding to attend to the daily tamid offering.
Mizrak - The priest collects the blood from the sacrifice into the Mizrak, and then spills the blood onto the corner of the altar.
Large Mizrak - The large mizrak, as the smaller mizrak, is used to gather the blood of the sacrifice, and to spill it onto the corner of the altar. The large mizrak is used when sacrificing larger animals, (cows and bullocks).
Three Pronged Fork - The three-pronged fork is mentioned in 1 Samuel 2:13. According to Rashi and Maimonides, the fork is used to turn over the offerings on the altar fire, or to lift up unconsumed portions of the offering so that the woodpile can be rearranged.
Measuring Cup
Measuring Cup - Measuring cups are used for measuring flour, wine and oil, of which specific amounts are prescribed to be used as ingredients in various offerings.
Copper Vessel
Copper Vessel - The copper vessel is used for preparing the meal offering. Meal offerings are made using various amounts of flour, oil and spices. 
Silver Shovel
Silver Shovel - The silver shovel is kept on the southwestern corner of the altar. The shovel is used for the removal of ashes left on the altar, the first task performed by the priests each morning at the break of dawn. 
Silver Vessel Wine Libation
Silver Vessel Wine Libation -The silver decanter is used for the wine libation. Wine is poured on the altar twice daily, morning and evening, accompanying the daily service.
Lottery Box or Kalpi - On Yom Kippur, the High Priest reaches into the lottery box and chooses lots. Thus is determined which goat will be used as an offering to G-d, and which will be sent off to Azazel, as an atonement for the sins of the people. During the First Temple, the lots were fashioned of wood. In the time of the Second Temple, they were of gold. The lots pictured above are fashioned of both wood and gold.
Silver Cup for Libations
Silver Cup for Water Libation - The silver cup, with the golden flask, is used in the Festival of the Water Libation, which takes place during the Holiday of Succot. At dawn, triests and levites, accompanied by the throngs of participants, wend their way down to the Spring of Shiloach. Water is drawn from the spring, and carried up the the Temple in the golden flask, where it is poured into the silver cup, as it rests atop the altar. 
Silver Libation Vessels - One of the main aspects of the holiday of Sukkot (Tabernacles) is the Biblical commandment, "And you shall be glad on your holiday, and you shall be only joyful" (Deut. 16:14). Indeed, the pilgrims who arrived in Jerusalem at the Temple's courtyard came to rejoice. The focus of this rejoicing was the ceremony surrounding the commandment to pour water on the altar - the water libation.

Sickle - On the 16th day of Nissan, in a public gathering on the outskirts of Jerusalem, the first of the barley crop is harvested using sickles. This barley is then brought to the Holy Temple to be used in the Omer offering.
Seives for Omer Offering - Once the barley is brought to the Temple Courtyard, priests beat, roast, grind, and sift the grain. A handful of the resulting flour is burned on the altar. The remainder is eaten by the priests.
Three Tier
3-Tiered Abuv - The Abuv is a three-tiered stand. The top level holds a perforated copper pan, and below it is a receptacle for hot coals. It is used for roasting the newly harvested barley of the Omer offering, performed on Passover.
Hatavat Menorah
Hatavat Menorah Cleansing Vessel- The daily service of the Temple includes the cleaning of the seven oil cups of the Menorah, using the vessel pictured above, (in Hebrew, Hatavah). The vessel includes tongs and a brush.
Oil Pitcher
Oil Pitcher - The oil pitcher is used to replenish the oil for the menorah. The design pictured above is based on an ancient coin from the Second temple period. This pitcher contains 3.5 lug, (2 liters) of oil.
Menorah Oil
Menorah Oil Flask - The small golden flask is used to pour olive oil into the menorah. The priest pours oil into this flask from the larger pitcher, which contains enough oil necessary for all seven lamps. This smaller flask is then used to replenish the oil of each individual lamp.  
Rankincense Censor
Frankincense Censor - Once a week, on the Sabbath, the twelve loaves of the showbread are removed by the priests, and replaced with new loaves. At the same time, the two portions of frankincense are also replaced. The two portions of frankincense are carried inside the gold Frankincense Censer. Still inside the censer, they are placed on the table of the showbread.
Incense Chalice
Incense Chalice - The incense chalice, which holds "half a portion" (approx. 200 grams), of the incense offering ingredients. The chalice is carried into the Sanctuary of the Temple, where the golden incense altar stands. Upon entering the Sanctuary the priest sounds the small ring-shaped bell seen on the top of the chalice cover.

Incense Shovel

Incense Shovel - This shovel is used to remove burning coals from the outer altar. The priest then carries the coals on this shovel into the sanctuary, where the coals are used on the golden incense altar.  
Menorah - The menorah, made from a single piece of solid gold, stands in the southern side of the Sanctuary. Each morning a priest prepares and rekindles the wicks. The central wick, known as "the western candle" is required to burn perpetually. The oil and wicks of this candle are changed in such a fashion as to insure that it will never be extinguished.  
Showbread Table
Showbread Table - in the northern side of the Sanctuary stands the table of the Showbread. The table is made of wood, overlaid with gold. Upon it are placed the twelve loaves of showbread. Each Sabbath, the loaves are simultaneously removed and replaced by fresh loaves, so as to insure that these loaves remain "perpetually" on the table. Miraculously, the week old loaves being replaced also retain their heat and freshness. These loaves are distributed among the priests.
Incense Altar
Incense Altar - Centrally located in the Sanctuary, between the menorah to the south, and the table of the showbread to the north, stands the incense altar, directly in front of the Holy of Holies, to the west. The incense altar, made of wood covered with gold, is employed in what is considered to be the most beloved aspect of the Temple service in G-d's eye: the incense offering. In order to allow for every priest to perform this most prized of offerings, a daily lot is drawn. Only those priests who have never offered incense upon the altar are allowed to participate.
arc with sphere
Ark of The Covenant - This is one implement/vessel which no one really knows what it looked like because of its secrecy. Even when carried before the Israelites during moves or battles, it was covered by a special cloth and no one could see it. When Christ returns we'll see exactly what the "wings of angels" really look like!
Priestly Garment
Ephod or Breastplate
Ephod or Breastplate - This was a special and mysterious part of the priestly garment with significant powers. The twelve semi-precious stones in the breastplate represent the twelve tribes of Israel.
Tzitz Crown
Tzitz or Crown - One of the four "golden garments" of the high priest is the crown, fashioned from one single piece of pure gold. The crown is worn across the forehead, extending from ear to ear, (as pictured in the inset above). It is held in place by a string dyed in the same blue color as used in all the high priest's garments. The crown bears the inscription: "Holy to G-d," and is worn by the high priest at all times, while he is officiating in the Temple.  
Silver Trumpets
Silver Trumpets - In the Holy Temple, silver trumpets are used during the Divine service, as well as for announcing the arrival of the Shabbat, the New Moon, the three Festivals, and for other various occasions.

Gold Shofar

Gold Shofar - The gold-plated shofar, (ram's horn), is blown in the Holy Temple on Rosh Hashana.
Silver Shofar
Silver Shofar - The silver-plated shofar, (ram's horn), is blown in the Holy Temple on fast days. 
David's Harp or Nevel
David's Harp or Nevel - The harp, or nevel, is a prominent instrument used by the Levites in their orchestral accompaniment to the Divine service. 
Lyre - The lyre, or kinnor, like the harp, is frequently mentioned in the book of Psalms, as being a feature of the Levitical orchestra which performs in the Inner Courtyard of the Holy Temple. 
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The Parting of the Red Sea

he story of Moses and the parting of the Red Sea is a story that everyone is familiar with, most having heard the account during childhood. The events of the miraculous deliverance of the Jewish slaves from Egypt has many skeptics, especially those who are dubious about the the claim that Moses was told to hold up his hand as the angels of the Lord parted a thousand foot wall of water. We've seen the portrayals of the incident by visionary artists for centuries, including Cecil B. DeMille's famous depiction in the film The Ten Commandments. Who can forget the classic scene with Charlton Heston, who portrayed Moses, lift up his staff as the ocean waters roll to the sides and form a wall of water on each side of a drying seabed. Very imaginative, but not quite how it happened. I'll let an excerpt from the nonfiction book Aliens & In-laws explain further:

Excerpt from Aliens & In-laws

Moses and the HFO

Moses was the Jewish leader who led the tribe of Judah out of Egypt around 1,200 to 1,500 B.C. The Jews, also called Hebrews from the Egyptian word Habiru meaning 'slave', were once favored by a former Pharaoh (king) who made the Jewish slave, Joseph, the second in command in all of Egypt because he was able to accurately interpret the Pharaoh's dreams. Joseph had also saved Egypt from famine because God warned him in a dream of the impending disaster. Through Joseph's leadership Egypt's wealth increased ten-fold during the famine by selling food to others. In return, Pharaoh freed the Jews from slavery and gave them the choicest land in the Nile Delta called Goshen in which to attend their sheep. But that had all changed in the time of Pharaoh Ramses, the 18th reign of Pharaoh (or possibly the 19th reign of Ramses II). He had long forgotten the promises to Joseph, and the previous Pharaoh had reintroduced slavery among the Jews. Rameses (commonly spelled Ramses) also coveted the choice land that his distant predecessor, Pharaoh Apopis, had given to the decendants of Joseph.

Our greatest hint that Ramses was Rameses II is given in Isaiah 5:24 "My people went down aforetime into Egypt to  sojourn there; and the Assyrian oppressed them without cause." It has been established

Because of pressure applied by God, in the form of many plagues and infestations, the Pharaoh begrudgingly allowed the Jews to leave. However, shortly after they had gone, he had a change of heart and decided to send his armies to overtake Moses and kill all the Jews. I think it was most likely that Pharaoh saw it as an opportunity to rid himself of the Jews, once and for all, without having to do a house-to-house search of all of Egypt. He waited a few days before sending his army, thus assuring that the stench of decaying carcasses would not foul the main cities’ air quality. He knew his troops could easily catch up to the Hebrews in a far-away desert. It was likely his way of getting even for all the death and mysery that the Jewish God, Yahweh, had inflicted on the stubborn, unbelieving king and his people.

It's been estimated that there were at least one million Hebrews, and perhaps more than three million, because God only counted the men, not their wives and children:

    Exodus 12:37  "And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside (not including) children."       
  True route of the Hebrews out of Egypt can be traced by clues in The Bible
  exodus map
  Figure 1 - The path Moses would have taken in order to turn south at Etham (Numbers 33:5-8). The above path traces down natural desert washes and canyons (revealed on Google maps) which would have been the most likely path of travelers who lived 2,500 years ago. I've simply chosen the logical, most direct path above. There is a large open area with paths leading both east and south where I've placed "Baal Zephon" and, if I were an explorer, I'd look on the nearby mountaintops for the lost city of Baal Zephon. Good bet that's where it is.

When, on the night of the Passover, all the first born of Egypt were killed by the angel of the Lord (except those they "passed over" which had animal's blood swabbed over their doorposts i.e., the Hebrews), the Pharaoh finally acquiesced and allowed the Hebrews to leave. It was that very same day, perhaps just after midnight, that the Jews gathered their belongings and made a beeline out of Egypt before Rameses changed his mind. I'm sure Moses had them organized and prepared to leave on short notice. After all, he was trained in such matters by the Egyptian elite forces.


Exodus 12:37,41  "And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth…on that very same dayit came to pass that all the armies of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt." [Underlines added for emphasis].

  Moses was moving quickly but taking time to rest his weary people.The first night they made camp near Succoth, not too far from Goshen, but then Pharaoh had a change of heart and decided to gather his troops to send after the Hebrews. That's when the Lord knew they'd need to travel more quickly to His prearranged destination. He told them to prepare bread that wouldn't mold because they wouldn't have time to cook fresh meals for the next seven days. Pharaoh's troops would probably leave Egypt the next day in hot pursuit.

    Exodus 13: 6,8 " Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD. And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt." [Underlines added for emphasis].
  The Israelites didn't stop, they traveled both day and night:
    Exodus 13:21 " And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
[Underlines added for emphasis].

We know their travels were not on the main trade routes which were further north called "the way of the Philistines" (see Map above for location) and Exodus tells us why they went this way:

    Exodus 13:17-18  "Then it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, 'Lest perhaps the people change their minds when they see war, and return to Egypt.' So God led the people around by way of the wilderness of the Red Sea. And the children of Israel went up in orderly ranks out of the land of Egypt".

Numbers 33:5-8  "Then the children of Israel moved from Rameses and camped at Succoth. They departed from Succoth and camped at Etham, which is on the edge of the wilderness. They moved from Etham and turned back [south and west -- see figure 1] to Pi Hahiroth, which is east of Baal Zephon; and they camped near Migdol. They departed from before Hahiroth and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, went three days' journey in the Wilderness of Etham, and camped at Marah."


Baal Zephon means "God of the North" and historians are uncertain exactly where that mountain is located which is referred to in the book of Numbers. There is a mountain called Zephon in northern Syria that is often sited, but that would be more than a seven-day journey and far north of the Red Sea and Mount Sinai, not just to the east. Baal Zephon would more likely be in a mountain range of the Midian territories (see below). During the time of the Exodus, their territory apparently also included portions of the Sinai Peninsula, according to the New World Encyclopedia. We know the Midianites worshipped Baal, unlike the Egyptians who had their worship centered around the sun-god Ra. Pharaoh is derrived from the words Ra, the “sun” or “sun-god,” and the article phe, “the,” prefixed; hence phera (or now Pharoah), “the sun,” or “the sun-god.”

I have placed it (the Baal Zephon referred to at the time of Rameses II) in one of its more likely locations on my map (see
Figure 1). Ron Wyatt claims there was a crumbling fort on the shores of Arabia just opposite Nuweiba Beach which he thought might be Baal Zephon, but that would place Pi-Hahiroth west, not east, of Baal Zephon. I think it was more likely a typical mountaintop place of worship used by the Midianites farther inland but directly behind Nuweiba Beach.

Unfortunately, many Bible translations have taken liberties with the original and replaced the word "facing" with the word "opposite", which has the opposite meaning, placing the mountaintop landmark on the Saudi side of the Gulf of Aqaba (something even Ron Wyatt adhered to). The words "turn back" can only indicate they were to turn 180 degrees from the direction they were headed, which is obviously east. I think that God wanted the Israelites to turn and face their enemies in bold defiance of Pharoah. Migdol, the Egyptian fortress, was buttressed up against the mountainside, so God instructed Moses to camp between the mountains and the sea, on the sands of Nuweiba beach. (see
figure 10)

  Exodus 14:2 Tell the people of Israel to turn back [turn around] and camp in front of Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol [the Egyptian fortress] and the sea; you must camp in front of Baal-zephon, facing it [and camp] by the sea.
English Standard Version

Parting the Red Sea   moses
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"Pillar of a cloud by day…and by night in a pillar of fire"

    Exodus 13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:"    
  Again, note that Moses is referring to a pillar "of a" or "in a" cloud, clearly differentiating the cloud from the pillar. The cloud was simply a covering for the object. Is there precedent for this type of cloaking today with giant flying columns? Indeed. In fact, there are accounts of smaller drone-class UFOs winding around giant columns and dispersing a vaporous cloud-like material outside the larger "mother ships" when they've appeared close to the earth. That was a few decades ago, but today, because of the times in which we live, giant UFOs are becoming much more daring in their revelation, as if they have stepped it up and want us to clearly see them. In fact, I'll throw in a few of the more notable giant cylinders photographed just in the last few years (other than the great black-and-white example from 1967 below).

5   china cylinder
Figure 5-A  Rhode Island, USA 1967  
Figure 5-B  Zhejiang Province, China 2010   Figure 5-C  Zhejiang Province, China 2010
4 3
Figure 5-D  Big Island, Hawaii 2011   Figure 5-E  Modesto, California 2005
ufo sightings   2
Figure 5-F  Auxerre, France 2008   Figure 5-G  Monterrey, Mexico 2005
  Ufo seen Over China On July 7, 2010 near the Xiaoshan Airport in Hangzhou, China.

As the fleeing Jews attempted to escape from the Pharaoh they came upon the Red Sea and were fearful that they would die at the hands of the closing Egyptian army.

If you read the account given in the Bible you’ll find that it differs significantly from the film version portrayed by Cecil B. DeMille. The Israelites were, in reality, preceded by a huge pillar of cloud. When they got to the Red Sea and saw Pharaoh’s army approaching, they cried out to Moses saying, “better we should have stayed slaves than to die in this barren, God foresaken wilderness.”  But Moses knew God’s plan. He told the people, “Don’t be afraid, for God is going to fight for you today. Be still and watch the salvation of the Lord.” The people watched as the huge cloud of the Lord maneuvered:


EXODUS 14:19   And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them: [Underlines added for emphasis].

  Note that Moses may be talking about two objects: The Angel of God, and the pillar of cloud. The first object, the angel, may have been what Ezekiel described as a "wheel within a wheel. Also note that the second object is not called “a pillar of cloud” but, rather, referred to as the (solid) pillar “of the cloud”, inferring the cloud or vapor was simply a cloaking mechanism to hide the appearance of the cylinder, or pillar. Deuteronomy tells us this pillar physically held over 10,000 angels (see figure 5 below).

re:  Deuteronomy 33:2 Make sure you select the Authorized Version -- aka The King James Bible version -- for the most accurate translation of this verse...with the exception that it says God came with ten thousands [meaning an undefinable number] of "saints" [resurrected humans] rather than "holy ones" [angels] which is more correct.

Another significant area is whether the word is with (עם) or from (מ in Hebrew).There is a significant difference between "came from" and "came with," which many have wrongly misinterpreted. They have forced their prejudices on the original, which is with (עם).

The Lord came to them
with an undefinable number of angels. You if can find a Holman Christian Standard Bible, that is arguably the most accurate exegesis or interpretation, and highly recommended by such notable men as Dr. Charles Stanley and the late Chuck Colson, founder of Prison Fellowship Ministries.
    Deuteronomy 33:2   He said: The Lord came from Sinai and appeared to them from Seir; He shone [on them] from Mount Paran and came with ten thousand holy ones, with lightning from His right hand for them.                                             (HCSB)    
  The sight was so awesome that the Egyptian army was hesitant to attack the Jews. As the night drew nearer, the object gave off an enormous light that lit the entire camp of over one million Jews.  
    20   And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.    
  red sea parting
  Figure 6 - And the mountain of the Lord caused a great eastward wind to blow all night and dry up the sea bed of the Red Sea so that the fleeing Hebrews could cross over on dry land quickly. It was also a trap that the Lord's angels had planned for Pharoah's army. Once their army, with the chariots leading the way, were fully committed to persuing the Hebrews across the nearly 10 mile spans, the sea water began seeping back into the sands and the chariot wheels began sinking making it impossible to escape the waters that came crashing down on them.
  It’s interesting to read that the object was able to direct its light so that it lit the Hebrew camp but was "darkness and cloud" to the Pharaoh’s forces.

It was during that tense night that Moses stretched out his hand and the sea parted, but it was not an instantaneous occurrence as portrayed in the film. It took all night to dry out the sea bed:

    EXODUS 14:21   And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided [Underlines added for emphasis].    
  Then in the early morning hours the tribe of Israel escaped through the parted waters:

    EXODUS 14:22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.    
  As daylight approached, the Egyptians were able to see that the Jews were escaping.  Pharaoh's commander certainly must have been a tremendous leader because he was able to talk his army into pursuing the Israelites through the walls of the huge body of water. It must have been an awesome and fearful sight:

    EXODUS 14:23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.    
  Now when the Egyptians had traveled well into the sea path, the Lord caused the chariot wheels to fall off, ensuring that none would escape:

EXODUS 14:24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,

25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.

As they fled back to shore Moses stretched out his hand again and the sea water came crashing in on the Egyptians and the entire army of  250,000 was drowned or crushed.

I sincerely believe that God had Moses stretch out his hand as a symbolic gesture.  He wanted the people to think that Moses was somehow responsible (of course, he was in a sense) for the way the giant cloud (the “angel” of the Lord) had demonstrated its awesome ability.

Chariot wheels found in the waters just off Nuweiba Beach, Sinai Peninsula

  red sea
  red sea
Figure 9 - Chariot wheels found off the shores of Nuweiba were 4, 6, and larger 8-spoked wheels (top) used on choice chariots and only employed during the 18th dynasty of the Pharaohs.
  Nuweiba Beach today
Figure 10 - Nuweiba Beach as it appears today with many new vacation homes and resorts erected along its shores. To see what it looked like when Moses was camped on its beach, ROLL OVER image with your cursor [desktop users only]
The beach at Nuweiba, which is short for Nuwayba’al Muzayyinah in Arabic, means “waters of Moses open”. It has all the necessary attributes to clearly make it the place where Moses and the Hebrews were trapped by Pharoah's army which was approaching in the canyons of Wadi Watir (above). A Hebrew-style column was recently found by the Egyptians tipped over and laying near the shoreline of Nuweiba. Officials moved the large stone pillar further from the water's edge, embedded it in cement to keep it upright and plastered over the pillar's exterior. Unfortunately, they covered the writing that locals claim were inscribed on it. The words: Mizraim (Egypt), Moses, death, water, Yahweh, Solomon and Edom. The column was a landmark from antiquities, most likely erected by Solomon, to show where Moses had miraculously crossed over the Red Sea on dry land. An identical column has been found on the opposite shore in Saudi Arabia.

The Bible also mentions that there was an Egyptian garrison and watchtower near the crossing. The remains of an ancient three-story structure called Migdol (Hebrew for watchtower) still stands at Pi-Hahiroth on the northern end of the beach. Pi-Hahiroth, in Hebrew
Pi ha-Cheyroth means "mouth of the gorges" per Strong's Concordance. A gorge is a ravine, gully or canyon. So this location fits exactly what is described in Scripture. This large beach, roughly 3 miles by 5 miles, is large enough to hold the estimated one million-plus Jews who fled the bondage of Rameses II, during the 18th reign of the Pharaohs, and is enclosed by steep mountains that serve as an inescapable trap.

The noted Roman historian, Flavius Josephus, who chronicled the Jewish history around 70 AD, wrote of Moses' exodus: "A ridge of mountains…obstructed their flight (escape)."


"They also seized on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was [on each side] a [ridge of] mountains that terminated at the sea, which were impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight; wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews with their army, where [the ridges of] the mountains were closed with the sea; which army they placed at the chops of the mountains, that so they might deprive them of any passage into the plain."    Antiquities of the Jews, Book 2, chpt.15, paragraph 3

Migdol fort   Figure 11 (Left): An ancient Egyptian garrison still stands today on the shores of Nuweiba Beach at Pi-Haharoth which is translated "mouth of the gorges" and also "mouth of Heroth Pass." The three-story structure is believed to be the watchtower which is described in Scripture which existed at the time of Moses and the Hebrews during their flight from Pharoah's fast-approaching army of 250,000 battle-hardened soldiers. Unfortunately, the Egyptian government has undergone a restoration of the building and may have changed some features slightly.

Alternative Theories

  There is another route that is debated which takes the tribe of Hebrews further south around the tip of the Sinai Peninsula, which is something to ponder. The data on that route can be found at However, this way does not explain the following Scripture that clearly warns of a steep mountain range that obstructed Moses' escape, "They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in" (Exodus 14:3 KJV), nor would it be possible to reach Succoth where this author puts it because there would be no way to reach that destination the same day. The Hebrew entourage would be lucky to travel 12 or 15 miles a day, certainly not the 150 mile distance he is showing.

Yet another hypothesis has Moses crossing over the shallow Sea of Reeds and traveling along the extreme north to a place called Lake Bardawill in the northern Sinai Peninsula. This theory has them headed out onto the sand spit and turning around and going back, then heading south. There are many problems with this location, but it does make the "miracle" of the parting of the Red Sea a much simpler task. They speculate a typo in the Bible. It really meant the
Reed Sea which is only around 6 feet at its deepest point where they have Moses crossing over. Scientific hypotheses even claim it's possible for wind to move bodies of water forming dry land for up to 4 hours, as long as they are fairly shallow (up to 6 feet). That conveniently rules out any supernatural "miracle" and makes it a purely scientifically plausible, somewhat natural occurrence. Government studies have been done calculating the possibility of wind moving small bodies of water with simulated computer models. My faith is a little stronger than that, but you can check out the data yourself:  if you are so inclined.
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INTRIGUE (cont'd)
•  Crop Circles: Signs On the Earth
  The Star of David
  The Bethlehem "Star"
  Noah's Ark Rediscovered!
  The Real Mount Sinai
  Parting The Red Sea
  Building the Third Temple
  Hebrew Gematria, Thirteen & 666
  Tetrahedron Unified Field Theorem
  Mothership Zion: New Jerusalem
  Making A Submission
How To Get Your Ideas Online
 Marketing is Key to Success
   Blue Book
Project 1947
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